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E

where n is any integer from 1 to . Some of the energy levels are shown in Figure 12-07a while the probability density corresponding to different quantum states are shown in Figure 12-07b where n,

probability densities have either spherical symmetry or rotational symmetry about the z axis. When the electron jumps from a higher energy level E_{n+1} to a lower one E_{n}, a photon with frequency = (E_{n+1} - E_{n})/h is released (see the atomic transition series in Figure 12-07a). Excitation is the reversed process when the electron in energy level E_{n} absorbs a photon with frequency . Incidentally, the semi-classical Bohr model of H atom can also account for such H atom structure as well. The theory portrays the electron moving around the atomic nucleus similar to the Sun-Earth system but imposed a condition that the electron wave closed on itself to become standing wave. | ||

## Figure 12-07a Energy Levels |
## Figure 12-07b Probability Density [view large image] |

The state of the electron in an atom is specified by four quantum numbers. The principal quantum number n determines the energy level; its value runs from 1, 2, 3, ... For each n, the orbital quantum number

For n = 1,

For n = 2,

The quantum number

See some "Hydrogen Atom Images".

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