@ end of era
@ end of era
@ end of era
|Relics & Observables
||Events (as re-constructed from theories)
||< 5.4x10-44 sec
||< 1.6x10-33 cm
||> 1.2x1019 Gev
|Expansion started from a point to Planck scale; all forces united into one
|| <10-35 sec
||< 3x10-25 cm
||> 1014 Gev
||High energy cosmic rays; fundamental interactions
||Separation of spacetime and matter; separation of gravitational, strong, and electroweak forces
|Inflation (Rate of Expansion >>> c)
||< 10-32 sec
||< 3x10-22 cm = observable size
< 100 cm (unobs.)
|> 1014 Gev
large scale structures
|Reheating; Unstable vacuum;
||< 10-11 sec
||< 0.3 cm
(see size scale)
|> 300 Gev
||Radiation; excess of matter over antimatter; separation of force (bosons), and matter (fermions) fields
||Radiation released in reheating; baryon-antibaryon asymmetry; separation of weak and electromagnetic forces; origin of mass
||< 1 sec
||< 3x1010 cm
||> 1.7 Mev
||Formation of hadrons
||Axion as dark matter
||< 4 min
||< 7x1012 cm
||> 100 kev
||neutron/proton ratio fixed
||< 1/2 hour
||< 5x1013 cm
||> 40 Kev
||Fraction of Light elements
||Nuclear reactions freeze out, stable nuclei form
|Radiation era Matter era
||< 0.24 My
||< 2x1023 cm
||> 0.6 ev
||Mass density fluctuations
||Matter density finally exceeds radiation density
||< 0.3 My
||< 3x1023 cm
||e- and p+ recombine into H atoms,
universe became transparent to light
|< 1 Gy
||< 1027 cm
||21 cm radio emission,
First stars, heavy elements
|mass fluctuations grow, first small objects coalesce, reionization
||< 2 Gy
||< 2x1027 cm
||Stars, quasars, galaxies
||Collapse to galactic systems
|Bright age of Galactic Clusters
||< 12 Gy
||< 1028 cm
||Solar system; decline of stellar formation from peak
||dark energy became dominant;
formation of clusters of galaxies
||~ 13.7 Gy
||~ 1.3x1028 cm
||Large scale gravitational instability
||Force and Phenomena
|Observable Universe a
(including dark energy, ordinary and dark matters)
|| Gravity + Unknown repulsive force; an expanding space in the last 13.7x109 yrs, containing all the mass/energy of this world
||Gravity; largest scale of lumpiness
|Clusters of Galaxies a
||Gravity; galaxies in orbit around each other + dark matter
||1011 - 1014 Msun
||Gravity; aggregation of stars, gas, dust and dark matter
|Star Clusters a
||102 - 106 Msun
||Gravity; group of stars originated in an interstellar cloud
|Planetary Systems a
||Gravity; system of non-luminous bodies as by-product in stellar formation
||Gravity; contracting lump of gas with luminosity maintained by nuclear burning
||Gravity; a planet in the habitable zone of the Solar system
|Multicellular Organisms b
||104 - 10-1 cm.
||107 - 10-3 gm.
||Residual Electromagnetic force; organisms composed of multiple cells
|Unicellular Organisms b
||10-1 - 10-4 cm.
||10-3 - 10-12 gm.
||Residual Electromagnetic force; one cell living unit
||10-5 - 10-8 cm.
||10 - 10-3 ev.
||Residual Electromagnetic force; structure formed by combination of atoms
||Electromagnetic force; system of electrons and nuclei
||Residual strong force; system of neutrons and protons
|Elementary Particles p
||10-16 cm. >
||10-3 - 1012 ev.
||< 10-32 sec.
||Weak, strong and electromagnetic forces; basic constituents of matter and force
||4800 - 4000
||Formation of Earth, solidification of crust,
evidence of water, heavy bombardment.
|Prebiotic (see "A 2018 Update on the Theory of Prebiotic World").
||4000 - 2500
||Beginning of rock record, evidence of plate
tectonics, magnetic field generation.
|Protozoa (unicellular organism).
||2500 - 541
||Free oxygen in the atmosphere, glaciation¶,
solidification of inner core.
|Metazoa (multicellular organism).
||(Era of Ancient Life)
||541 - 485.4
||Deposition of Burgess Shale.
||Invertebrates (trilobites), corals,
sea life of many types proliferating.
||485.4 - 443.4
||Sea covered most of the planet.
||Vertebrates, first fish, mass extinction§.
||443.4 - 419.2
||High sea level.
||Land plants, jawed fishes, ammonoids.
||419.2 - 358.9
||Gondwana, Laurasia beginning to form Pangaea.
||Amphibians, forests, sharks.
||358.9 - 298.9
||Swamps and coal bearing rocks.
||298.9 - 252.2
||Formation of Pangaea (the super-continent),
||(Era of Middle Life, Age of Reptiles)
||252.2 - 201.3
||Five million years "Dead Zone" in the tropics after end-Permian mass extinction.
||201.3 - 145.0
||Oldest surviving ocean floor.
||Height of dinosaurs, early mammals and birds.
||145.0 - 66.0
||Oil and gas deposits, broke up of Pangaea,
global mountain building.
|End of the dinosaurs, first flowering plants.
||(Era of Modern Life, Age of Mammals)
||66.0 - 2.588
||Himalayas and Alps folded.
||Evolutionary separation of apes and
monkeys, most mammals established.
||2.588 - present
||Last ice age.
||Network of protein filaments
||Structural support; cell movement
||Motility or moving fluids over surfaces
||Moving chromosomes during cell division
||Lipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded
||Regulates what passes into and out of cell; cell-to-cell communication
||Network of internal membranes; forms compartments and vesicles
||Rough type processes proteins for secretion and synthesizes phospholipids; smooth type synthesize fats and steroids
||Structure bounded by double membrane; contains chromosomes
||Control center of cell; directs protein synthesis and cell reproduction
||Stacks of flattened vesicles
||Modifies and packages proteins for export from cell; forms secretory vesicles
||Vesicles derived from Golgi complex that contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes
||Digest worn-out mitochondria and cell debris; play role in cell death
||Vesicles to collect debris within the cell
||Malfunction causes accumulation of cell damage leading to diseases and aging (see Malfunction of Autophagy)
||Bacteria-like elements with inner membrane
||Battery of the cell by ATP synthesis; site of oxidative metabolism
|ORGANELLES OF GENE EXPRESSION
|Chromosomes (during cell division) / Chromatins
||Long threads of DNA that form a complex with protein
||Contain hereditary information
||Site of rRNA synthesis
||Small, complex assemblies of protein, often bound to ER
||Site of protein synthesis
||Transports nutrients, gases (O2, CO2), hormones and wastes through the body
||Heart, blood vessels and blood
||Breakdowns and absorbs nutrients for growth and maintenance
||Mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, small and large intestines
|Relays chemical messages through the body for controlling physiological processes
||Hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, pancreas and adrenal glands
||Filters out cellular wastes, toxins and excess water or nutrients from the circulatory system
||Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, lungs, sweat pores, and intestine
||Destroys or removes invading microbes, viruses; the lymphatic system also removes fat, and excess fluids from the blood. Skin is the outermost defense against pathogens
||Spleen, thymus, bone marrow, lymph, lymph nodes and vessels, white blood cells, T- and B- cells, skin
||Supports and moves organism; also protects delicate internal organs and provides attachment sites for the organs.
||Skeletal and smooth muscles; bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
|Relays electrical signals, directs movement, controls physiological processes, and responses to environment
||Brain, nervous system, and the five senses
||manufactures cells for reproduction
||Female: ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina, and mammary glands;
male: testes, as deferens, seminal vesicles, penis, and prostate gland
||Provides gas exchange between the blood and the environment
||Nose, trachea, and lungs