- FA flowering plants (angiosperms) - The modern types of flowering plant became common some time in the middle of the Cretaceous. Hardwood trees slowly replaced the conifers as the dominant trees of the forests (see Figure 09a). These new plants provided fruits, flowers and nectar as new sources of food, causing great changes in all life on land.
- Dinosaurs continued to dominate the land. But the fauna was very different from that of the late Jurassic. Large sauropods were rare, and the medium-sized coelurosaurs had been replaced by the ostrich-like ornithomimids, which included the duck-billed hadrosaurs and the armoured ankylosaurs and ceratopsians. The 30 feet long sea monsters called mosasaurs were the descendants of nothosaurs.
- Carnivorous mammals such as Repenomamus were beginning to come out of the shadows. A complete fossil of this animal was found at the base of the Yixian Formation in northeastern China. On its left side, under the ribs where a mammal's stomach might well have been, lies a fragmentary and disarticulated skeleton of a young dinosaur about 14 cm long. The devourer of this little dinosaur was more than a meter long, and is estimated to have weighed 4 - 6 kg.