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Medical Science


ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat)

Cephalization is about the tendency for sensory, neural, and feeding organs to be concentrated at the front end of the body, leading to the
Ear Anatomy Nose Anatomy Throat Anatomy development of a head in many organisms. Human is among one of this kind of organisms, thus the ENT covers the treatment of many of the important organs in the head beside the mouth, teeth, and eyes. The medical jargon for ENT is "otolaryngology" and actually includes head and neck surgery. Figures 14, 15, 16 show the anatomies of the ENT, while Table 04 below lists some common illnesses in this category.

Figure 14 Ear Anatomy
[view large image]

Figure 15 Nose Anatomy

Figure 16 Throat Anatomy


Disease Symptom(s) Cause(s) Treatment(s)
Allergy Red eyes, itchiness, runny nose, eczema, hives, or asthma attack Disorder of the immune system Medication, allergy shots ( see link)
Common Cold Runny nose, sore throat, cough, watery eyes, sneezing, low-grade fever, mild fatigue Viral infection of nose and throat No cure, self-heal in about a week or two
( see link)
Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Facial deformities Genetic, growth disorder, injury, arthritis, ... Surgery ( see link)
Head and Neck Cancer Lump or sore on the mucosal surfaces inside the head and neck Alcohol and tobacco use Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy ( see link)
Laryngology Voice and swallowing disorders Common cold, structural lesions, infections, injury Resting, voice or singing therapy, surgery
( see link)
Otology/Neurotology Hearing loss, ringing in the ears, pain in ear, face or neck and (dizziness etc. from balance disorder) (Infections, etc. for hearing loss), and imbalance vestibule, stress, weak leg, poor eyesight/sensation Medications, hearing aid, exercise program (for balance disorder) ( see link)
Rhinology Nasal polyps, mucoceles, headaches, loss of smell, stuffy nose Allergy, infection, tumors Incisions, endoscopic sinus surgery
( see link)
Sleep Apnea (OSA) Breathing pauses greater than 10 sec resulting in heavy snoring, daytime sleepiness, short temper, morning headaches, forgetfulness, changes in mood or behaviour Upper airway narrowing or collapse Lifestyle changes, specialized device
( see link)
Snoring Making noise while sleeping Obstruction to the free flow of air through the back of the mouth and nose - the soft palate Change sleep position and pillow, lose weight, avoid alcohol, drink plenty of fluids, surgery ( see link)

Table 04 ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat) Diseases

Otology/Neurotology The Otology/Neurotology entry in Table 04 is rather confusing because the ears serve two different functions - hearing and balancing. The hearing problems usually occur in the middle ear such as bacterial or viral infection behind the eardrum (Figure 17), while imbalance is mostly associated with the vestibular nerves caused by inflammation of the inner ear (acute vestibular neuritis).

Figure 17 Otology / Neurotology

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