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Medical Science


Pulmonology (Pneumology)

Mitochondria Modes of Respiration Respiratory System

Figure 28 ATP Production in Mitochondria [view large image]

Figure 29 Modes of Respiration [view large image]

Figure 30 Anatomy of the Lung, Normal and Diseased
[view large image]


Respiration is the process to convert the energy stored in glucose to the ATP (see ATP Synthase), which is in usable form for various activities in life. Majority of the ATPs are manufactured in the mitochondria as depicted in Figure 28, which shows that oxygen is required to run the process. This is called respiration and is performed by all animals on Earth (the lowly anaerobes utilize other molecules such as sulphur (S), ... instead of oxygen, see redox). Each ATP contains an energy of 7.3 kilocal per mole (~ 0.3 ev/ATP). The energy is released at the site of requisition -- one package each with spatial precision. Thus, all aerobic animals have to acquire oxygen to stay alive. There are different modes to accomplish this goal depending on the type of phylum as indicated below (also see Figure 29) :