Element Electron Orbitals/Emission Spectrum Common Compound(s)/Application(s)
5
Boron (B)
~ Nitride (BN)/Cutting Steel
Sodium Borate (Borax, Na2B4O710H2O)/Laundry Aid
Boric Acid (H3BO3)/Eyewash, Antiseptic, Insecticide
13
Aluminum (Al)
~ Oxide (Al2O3)/Sandpaper, Grinding Tool
~ Oxide + Chromium/Ruby
~ Oxide + Iron, Titanium/Sapphire
~/Airplane Wings, Cook Wares, etc.
31
Gallium (Ga)
~ Arsenide (GaAs)/Laser Diode, Light-emitting Diode (LED)
~/Computer Chips, Neutrino Detector
49
Indium (In)
~ Tin Oxide (90% In2O3 + 10% SnO3)/LCD Screen
~/High Vacuum Sealer, Nuclear Reactor Control
81
Thallium (Tl)
~ Sulfide (Tl2SO4)/Infrared Detector
~ Tl201 (1/2 Life = 73 hrs)/Heart Disease Diagonsis

Group 13 Elements