Element Electron Configuration/Emission Spectrum Common Compound(s)/Application(s)
21, Group 3
Scandium(Sc)
(Transition Metal)
~ Sc-Al alloy is as strong as titanium, light as aluminium, and hard as ceramic.
~ ScI3 is a white-light source close to the composition of sunlight for good color-reproduction with TV cameras.
22, Group 4
Titanium(Ti)
(Transition Metal)
~ Dioxide (TiO2)/Opaque Paints, Sun Tan Lotions
~ Tetrachloride (TiCl4)/Smoke Screens
~/Jet Engines, Rockets, and High Quality Tools
23, Group 5
Vanadium(V)
(Transition Metal)
24, Group 6
Chromium(Cr)
(Transition Metal)
~ Oxide (Cr2O3)/Green Pigment, Audio Tape Coating
~ Iron, Nickel Alloy/Stainless, Heating Elements
~/Energy Storage in Ruby Laser, Decorative and Protective Plating over Other Metals, Coloring in Gemstones, e.g., Alexandrite, Emerald, Ruby
25, Group 7
Manganese(Mn)
(Transition Metal)
26, Group 8
Iron(Fe)
(Transition Metal)
~ Nickel Alloy/Structural Material for Buildings
~ Tungsten, Vanadium Alloy/Cutting Tools at High Temperature
~ Manganese Alloy/Rifle Barrels, Power Shovels
~ Carbon, Silicon Alloy (Cast Iron)/Pipe, Machine Parts, Cook Wares
~/In Hemoglobins and Other Proteins
27, Group 9
Cobalt(Co)
(Transition Metal)
28, Group 10
Nickel(Ni)
(Transition Metal)
~ Oxide Hydroxide (NiOOH)/Cadmium Betteries
~/Layer of Protective Coating to Iron and Copper
29, Group 11
Copper(Cu)
(Transition Metal)
~ Zinc Alloy (Brass)/Pipes, Wires, Gears, etc.
~ Tin or + Phosphorus, Manganese, Aluminum, Silicon Alloy (Bronze)/Ship Propellers, Bearings, Springs, Sculptures, Musical Instruments
~/Thermal and Electrical Conductors
30, Group 12
Zinc(Zn)
(Transition Metal)
39, Group 3
Yttrium(Y)
(Transition Metal)
40, Group 4
Zirconium(Zr)
(Transition Metal)
41, Group 5
Niobium(Nb)
(Transition Metal)
42, Group 6
Nolybdenum(Mo)
(Transition Metal)
43, Group 7
Technetium(Tc)
(Transition Metal)
44, Group 8
Ruthenium(Ru)
(Transition Metal)
45, Group 9
Rhodium(Rh)
(Transition Metal)
46, Group 10
Palladium(Pd)
(Transition Metal)
~ /Automobile Catalytic Converter, Hydrogen Absorber, Cold Fusion (unsubstantiated claim)
47, Group 11
Silver(Ag)
(Transition Metal)
~ Copper Alloy (Sterling Silver)/Jewelry
~ Mercury Solution/Tooth Fillings
~ Bromide (AgBr)/Photographic Films
~ Chloride (AgCl)/Photochromic Sunglass, Stained Glass, Photographic Films, Bandages
~ Iodide (AgI)/Clouding Seeding
~/Best Thermal and Electrical Conductors, Protective Coating, Most Reflective Mirror Material
48, Group 12
Cadmium(Cd)
(Transition Metal)
57, Group 3
Lanthanum(La)
(Lanthanide)
58, Group 3
Cerium(Ce)
(Lanthanide)
59, Group 3
Praseodymium(Pr)
(Lanthanide)
60, Group 3
Neodymium(Nd)
(Lanthanide)
61, Group 3
Promethium(Pm)
(Lanthanide)
62, Group 3
Samarium(Sm)
(Lanthanide)
63, Group 3
Europium(Eu)
(Lanthanide)
64, Group 3
Gadolinium(Gd)
(Lanthanide)
65, Group 3
Terbium(Tb)
(Lanthanide)
66, Group 3
Dysprosium(Dy)
(Lanthanide)
67, Group 3
Holmium(Ho)
(Lanthanide)
68, Group 3
Erbium(Er)
(Lanthanide)
69, Group 3
Thulium(Tm)
(Lanthanide)
70, Group 3
Ytterbium(Yb)
(Lanthanide)
71, Group 3
Lutetium(Lu)
(Lanthanide)
72, Group 4
Hafnium(Hf)
(Transition Metal)
73, Group 5
Tantaium(Ta)
(Transition Metal)
74, Group 6
Tungsten(W)
(Transition Metal)
75, Group 7
Rhenium(Re)
(Transition Metal)
76, Group 8
Osmium(Os)
(Transition Metal)
77, Group 9
Iridium(Ir)
(Transition Metal)
78, Group 10
Platinium(Pt)
(Transition Metal)
79, Group 11
Gold(Au)
(Transition Metal)
~ Nickel or Copper Alloy (18-carat gold)/Jewelry
~/Non-tarnishable Electrical Conductors, Basis of Monetary System
80, Group 12
Mercury(Hg)
(Transition Metal)
~ Chloride (HgCl or HgCl2)/Fungicide, Pesticide
~/Thermostats, Thermometers, Fluorescent Lamps
89, Group 3
Actinium(Ac)
(Actinide)
90, Group 3
Thorium(Th)
(Actinide)
91, Group 3
Protactinium(Pa)
(Actinide)
92, Group 3
Uranium(U)
(Actinide)
U235/Atomic Bomb, Nuclear Reactor
U238/Breeder Reactor, Armor-piercing Antitank Shell, Missile Re-entry Ballast, Ceramic Glaze, Rock Dating
93, Group 3
Neptunium(Np)
(Actinide)
94, Group 3
Plutonium(Pu)
(Actinide)
95, Group 3
Americium(Am)
(Actinide)
96, Group 3
Curium(Cm)
(Actinide)
97, Group 3
Berkelium(Bk)
(Actinide)
98, Group 3
Californium(Cf)
(Actinide)
99, Group 3
Einsteinium(Es)
(Actinide)

Groups 3 - 12 Elements