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|There are two types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus and form unicellular organisms such as bacteria. The cells in protista, fungi, plants and animals are eukaryotic cells, which have a nucleus.|
In a eukaryotic cell, the plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer that separates the materials inside the cell from the environment surrounding it.
The outer surface of the membrane contains structures that allow cells to communicate with each other.
Figure 11-30a Eukaryotic Cell
Figure 11-30b Cell Nucleus
Within the cells are specialized structure called organelles that carry out specific functions in the cell. The cell structure is shown in Figure 11-30a, the functions of the cell are shown in Table 11-02 below.
|Cytosketeton||Network of protein filaments||Structural support; cell movement||No|
|Flagella(cilia, microvilli)||Cellular extensions||Motility or moving fluids over surfaces||Yes|
|Centrioles||Hollow microtubules||Moving chromosomes during cell division||No|
|Plasma membrane||Lipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded||Regulates what passes into and out of cell; cell-to-cell communication||Yes|
|Endoplasmic reticulum||Network of internal membranes; forms compartments and vesicles||Rough type processes proteins for secretion and synthesizes phospholipids; smooth type synthesize fats and steroids||No|
|Nucleus||Structure bounded by double membrane; contains chromosomes||Control center of cell; directs protein synthesis and cell reproduction||No|
|Golgi complex||Stacks of flattened vesicles||Modifies and packages proteins for export from cell; forms secretory vesicles||No|
|Lysosomes||Vesicles derived from Golgi complex that contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes||Digest worn-out mitochondria and cell debris; play role in cell death||No|
|Autophagy||Vesicles to collect debris within the cell||Malfunction causes accumulation of cell damage leading to diseases and aging (see Malfunction of Autophagy)||No|
|Mitochondria||Bacteria-like elements with inner membrane||Battery of the cell by ATP synthesis; site of oxidative metabolism||No|
|ORGANELLES OF GENE EXPRESSION|
|Chromosomes (during cell division) / Chromatins||Long threads of DNA that form a complex with protein||Contain hereditary information||Yes|
|Nucleolus||Site of rRNA synthesis||Assembles ribosomes||No|
|Ribosomes||Small, complex assemblies of protein, often bound to ER||Site of protein synthesis||Yes|
|ultimately determines the cell's characteristics. Within the nucleus, there are masses of threads called chromatin, which is indistinct in the non-dividing cell. The long string of DNA winds around a spool made with proteins called histone, which also plays a role in gene regulation. The chromatins condense to chromosomes at the time of cell division. Figure 11-31 shows the packed chromatin unwinding to a DNA strand. It also shows the appearance of chromosome in mitosis stage. The nucleolus is the specialized part of chromatin in which the ribosomal RNA (rRNA), is produced (Figure 11-30b).
The telomeres lie at the tips of the chromosome. They have hundreds to thousands of repeats of a specific 6-nucleotide DNA sequence. The telomeres lose 50 to 200 of these nucleotides at each mitosis; gradually shortening the chromosome. After about 50 divisions, a critical amount of telomere DNA is lost, which somehow signals the cell to stop mitosis. The cell may remain alive for a while but is unable to divide further. This is the cellular clock, which pre-determines the life span of the cell.
|See "DNA orgainization".|