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Inner World of the Cell

Effective Theories

Some Reductionist's Systems A popular concept of the "Theory of Everything" considers such theory to consist the most basic ingredient upon which everything can be built or understood. The most often definition of the ingredient is on the size of the components. Unfortunately, this is not the case as the construction become very complicated very soon when it is used to describe the system in the next (larger) level. The reductionist's

Figure 16 Reductionist's Systems [view large image]

approach is to use different method/theory for each different level and merge the various levels together at the end. Usually the connection is to adopt the derived quantities or properties at the lower (smaller
Size of Some Systems size) level as input parameters or established facts in the theory for the higher (larger size) level. Details in the lower level can be neglected by the theories for higher levels. Figure 16 and Table 02 illustrate some of the systems according to the size of their components. The classification is incomplete as there are many more systems below, above, and in between. The displays only try to emphasize the place of the world of nano-scale among the other systems. The next section will provide more detail about the unique properties of such world, from which all lives arose. The image on the left shows finer size division for some systems and components.

See also the mathematical intricacy of the many body system either in classical or quantum theory.

System System Size (cm) Component Size (cm) Interaction(s) Effective Theory
Atom ~ 10-8 10-16(electron) - 10-12(nucleus) Electromagnetism Quantum Mechanics
Cell 10-5 - 10-1 10-7(Water Molecule) - 10-6(Protein) Covalent and Hydrogen Bonds Molecular Biology
Living World 109(Earth) 10-5(cell) - 3x103(blue whale) Light, Sound, Smell, Force Biology
Solar System 5x1017 108(Pluto) - 4x1014(Sun) Gravity Newtonian Mechanics

Table 02 A Reductionist's View of Some Systems

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