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Medical Science


Medicine in the West
Chiropody (Podiatry)
ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat)
Pulmonology (Pneumology)
East Meets West
Facial Symptoms

Medicine in the West

In pre-historic times people knew nothing about the causes of disease and had no concept of health care. Healing depended largely on begging for mercy from a supreme being. Organized religion appeared around 6th Century BCE, the religious believes prevented further medical progress until Ancient Greece (~ 4th Century BCE) when some people such as Hippocrates (the father of Western Medicine,
Father of Western Medicine Figure 01 shows him treating the wound of a Greek soldier) rebelled. He was the first to propose theory to explain the causes and cures of disease (in the Hippocratic Collection). The Hippocratic oath sets ethical standards for physicians. The Roman Empire became the dominant power of Eurasia in the 2nd century BCE, it initiated many medical practices to ensure that its army is fit to fight. Galen was a Greek doctor in Rome at this period of time, he stressed the importance of human anatomy in curing diseases. His mistake was to dissect the bodies of apes instead of human's. Medical progress became stagnant during Dark Age (500 - 1000 AD) after the collapse of the Roman Empire. Renaissance saw the correct human anatomy, the discovery of blood pumping heart, and the improvement in surgery. During the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th Centuries there were many medical discoveries including the identification of the source for cholera (infected water), smallpox vaccination, the germ theory (illness caused by germs), and the use of anaesthetics and blood transusion in surgery. Synthetic drug started as distillation of isolates from plants in 16th Century. By the 20th Century, chemists learned to synthesize active plant components and modern

Figure 01 Father of Western Medicine
[view large image]

laboratories are able to produce standardized and readily available drugs. Now people are accustomed to take a pill for everything and most doctors and their patients addressed individual symptoms instead of causes.

Six Ways of Keeping Healthy List of Physical Activities Health care is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. It is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers. It refers to the work done in providing primary care, secondary care and tertiary care (each becomes more intensive following this ordering), as well as in public health. But efforts by yourself alone

Figure 02 Keeping Healthy

Figure 03 Daily Physical Activities to Stay Healthy [view large image]

exert a major influence on your own well-being as shown in Figures 02 and 03 in terms of sensible life style and daily exercise.

In spite of individual effort to keep a healthy body, it does fail due to various reasons. Under such circeumstance medical treatment is required to recover from whatever illness. According to the MacMillan Dictionary, there are 35 branches of medical science as listed below :
  1. Aetiology - the study of the causes of diseases.
  2. Bioengineering - the use of engineering for medical purposes, e.g., the use of artificial body parts, organs etc to replace damaged ones.
  3. Biomedicine - the principles of biology and biochemistry applied to the practice of medicine.
  4. Biomedicine - the study of the effect of the environment on the body under extreme conditions, especially in space travel.
  5. Cardiology - the area of medicine that deals with the heart and the diseases that affect it.
  6. Chiropody (Podiatry) - the area of medicine that deals with people's feet.
  7. Cytology - the study of how cells grow and change, for example cells that cause cancer.
  8. Dentistry - the study of people's teeth and how to treat problems of the teeth and mouth.
  9. Dietetics - the scientific study of how food affects your health.
  10. Embryology - the scientific study of embryos.
  11. ENT - ear, nose, and throat.
  12. Epidemiology - the scientific study of infectious diseases and their causes.
  13. Gastroenterology - Diseases of the digestive system.
  14. General practice (GP, general practice) - the work of a doctor who treats people for a wide range of medical problems, rather than concentrating on a specific type of medical problem.
  15. Genetics - the study of how the individual features and behaviour of living things are passed on through their genes.
  16. Geriatrics - the medical study, treatment, and care of old people and their diseases.
  17. Gerontology - the scientific study of old age.
  18. Gynaecology (Gynecoloty) - the type of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of medical conditions and diseases that affect women and their reproductive organs.
  19. Haematology (Hematology) - the scientific study of blood.
  20. Immunology - the study of how diseases can be prevented and how the immune system works.
  21. Medicine - the study and practice of treating or preventing illnesses and injuries.
  22. Neurology - the study of your nervous system and the diseases that affect it. A doctor who is an expert in this subject is called a neurologist.
  23. Neuroscience - the scientific study of the nervous system.
  24. Nutrition - the science of food and its effect on health and growth.
  25. Obstetrics - the part of medicine that deals with pregnant women and childbirth.
  26. Oncology - the study and treatment of cancer.
  27. Ophthalmology - the treatment of illnesses of the eyes.
  28. Orthopaedics (Orthopedics) - the part of medicine that deals with the treatment of orthopaedic injuries or diseases.
  29. Paediatrics (Pediatrics) - the part of medical science that deals with children and the treatment of their illnesses.
  30. Pathology - the study of the causes of diseases and how they affect people.
  31. Pharmacology - the scientific study of medicines and drugs used for treating medical conditions.
  32. Pharmacy - the scientific study of methods of preparing medicines and drugs used for treating medical conditions.
  33. Pulmonology (Pneumology) - Diseases of the lung - the most common medical conditions in the world.
  34. Radiology - a medical treatment in which radiation is used for treating an illness, or the study of this type of treatment. Someone who is trainedin radiology is a radiologist.
  35. Rheumatology - the area of medicine that deals with rheumatism. A doctor who works in this area is called a rheumatologist.
  36. Urology - the study of diseases of the urinary system, or medical treatment for them.
  37. Virology - the treatment and study of illnesses caused by viruses.
Note : # 13 and 33 are additional entries.

According to whether it can relieve pain and suffering from the patients, 11 of the branches are summarized in the following sub-sections with the name of the disease, the symptom(s), cause(s), and treatment(s) in form of a table. It is intended only as a very quick reference, the real patient should visit a doctor instead of browsing here.

See "Better Health Channel" for a complete list of all the diseases, and "The 8 dimensions of wellness" about holistic health.

In June 2015, the Nature magazine commences a new on-line publication with review articles on all kinds of disease or disorder (across all medical specialties). For an up-to-date information in medical science, see "Nature Reviews Disease Primers".

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