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Quantum Field Theory


A New Periodic Table preons With a few tweaks of the conventional fermion table, it can be re-arranged into a form shown in Figure 11, which appears to be a shortened version of the periodic table compiled in 1869. This new periodic table has increasing mass along both column (from top to bottom) and row (from left to right with two exceptions) similar to the old periodic table. The orderly arrangement of the old table was eventually explained by the internal structure of the atoms. Thus it is surmised that the same kind of explanation can be applied to the fermions and

Figure 11 A New Periodic Table
[view large image]

Figure 12 Preon Model [view large image]

the bosons (not shown in Figure 11). The hypothetical constituent is now dubbed as preon. It is hoped that a new model with the
preons can address many of the problems with the Standard Model. This kind of view is also consistent with the observation that the structure of the universe is like an onion or a Russian doll with layers within layers (admittedly a very rough analogy).

Many hypothetical models for the preon have emerged over the years. Figure 12 shows the one proposed in 1979. It posits two kinds of preons and their antimatter version, which could comprise both the fermions and bosons (gluons are not shown here as they are a bit more complicated). This scheme is for the first generation of the fermions. The higher generations are considered as the excited states of generation I. Thus far the construction of the model(s) is still at the stage of numerology playing with specific numerical patterns. There is no clue about its size, mass, spin, interaction, ... etc. It is hope that the experiments at LHC may offer some indications on whether preon is relevant to the future development of particle physics.

Finally, there is a website for anyone who aspires to a career in theoretical physics. The website provides links to teach people on the intricacy of particle theories. It was created by Gerard 't Hooft, who showed in 1971 that the gauge bosons in Standard Model could be made massive while preserving renormalizability. He is the recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize.

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