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The existence of asymmetric solutions to a symmetric theory is common to many branches of physics. The reason lies in the fact that the symmetric state is not the state of minimum energy, i.e., the ground state, and that in the process of evolving towards the ground state, the intrinsic symmetry of the system has been broken. Figure 01 shows that the initial position of the marble on top of the bump is symmetric but not in a  
Figure 01 Symmetry Breaking _{} 
state of minimum energy. A small perturbation will cause the rotational symmetry to be broken and the system to assume a stable state configuration. When the symmetry of a physical system is broken in this way, it is often referred to as "spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB)". 
process of SSB. Such process is similar to the phase transition (see Figure 02,a) between the gasliquidsolid phases, in which energy is released to the environment and the rotational symmetry changes to translational with the change of gas/liquid phase to solid. By such analogy, the SSB of electroweak at 10^{12} sec after the Big Bang can be considered as the transition of massless particles moving widely at the speed of light to motion constrained by having mass (see Figure 03 of the Standard Model in symmetric and Higgs phases).  
Figure 02 Phase Transition _{} 
Figure 03 Standard Model _{} 
Figure 02,b portrays another interpretation of phase transition via lowering the potential energy V by some kind of catalyzing agent. 
The obvious omission in this model is the absence of the reheating process which is responsible for the generation of matter at the end of inflation (see "Inflation Era"). According to another model developed in 2014 (see "Inflation, LHC and the Higgs boson"), it is indeed possible to produce a potential V with an inflationary plateau at large values of the scalar field, and two minima (Figure 04,b).  
Figure 04 Higgs as Inflaton 
A much simplified version of the mathematic derivation is sketched below to illustrate the theoretical formulation. 
 
Figure 05 Higgs/Inflaton, Evolution with Time _{} 
Figure 06 H Atom Energy Level & Cosmic Radius 
Now the hydrogenic wave function _{n}(R) can be identified to the Higgs field _{}. Inflation corresponds to the transition from the level of n 1 to the continuum (n = ). Energy should be infused to pump the transition as shown in Figure 07. In addition, _{} can be generalized to be the unified field in the GUT Era (Figure 08). 
Effort to formulate theory in time or size smaller than the Planck scale (~10^{44} sec, Figure 08) is doomed to fail as any system below such limit violates the uncertainty principle of t t_{PL} and x L_{PL} (for the corresponding Planck mass/energy) rendering it meaningless (see "What Is The Smallest Possible Distance In The Universe?").  
Figure 07 Cosmic Energy Density [view large image] 
Figure 08 _{} Q Field Evolution 
Entropy is defined as the degree of randomness, which can be expressed alternatively as the degree of freedom in a system, i.e., the number of different parameters or arrangements needed to specify completely the state of a system. The evolution of entropy in the universe can be separated into four phases as described in Figure 08a, which shows lot of (???) for the very low entropy at the beginning of the universe. It has been a puzzling problem since a hot Big Bang should involve a lot of entropy (randomness/disorder). The mathematics in the above quantum cosmological model is specified by only "one" parameter, i.e., the Planck length L_{PL}, which is the absolute minimum entropy for any system. Thus, low entropy came naturally in the model resolving the paradox.  
Figure 08a Evolution of Entropy [view large image] 
The universe starts with gravity (which goes on by itself) and a quantum wave function that is identified as the Higgs field. This Higgs field went on to undergo many phase changes and finally settled down with 3 distinct quantum fields plus the Higgs field itself as shown in Figure 09. Such phenomena is similar to the phase transition of water (see Figure 02), which can exist in the form of gas, liquid, and solid in macroscopic states (similar to the strong, weak, and em quantum fields in Figure 09).  
Figure 09 Quantum Field History (modified) [view large image] 
NB : The gravitational field is a classical field that does not follow the rules for the quantum fields. It only coupled to the Higgs field at the very early cosmic time in the form of quantum gravity. It detaches from the Higgs after inflation when the size of the universe is beyond the quantum domain. 
 
Figure 09b Convergence of Quantum Gravity [view large image] 
Figure 09b shows all kinds of objects in this world with different size and mass. Ultimately, they all emerge from a tiny speck at the Planck scale and via the action of Quantum Gravity (see the corresponding Table). 
Figure 10 QuarkGluon Plasma [view large image] 
Higgs and hence the quantum particles (excited from the fields) are massless moving at the velocity of light (Figure 12). Most of them acquired mass only after SSB. The event separated the electroweak field into the electromagnetic and weak; it also made the left/righthanded versions of the quarks and leptons acting differently in weak interaction.  
Figure 11 SM, Parameters _{} 
Figure 12 Mass, Origin of 
Figure 13 Stability of the Universe [view large image] 
and the sum is over all SM particles acquiring a Higgsdependent mass M_{i}. The precise form of V_{1} is not important in the present context, it just shows that the Higgs potential also depends on the particles it acts upon. Furthermore, only the heaviest top quark in the sum is retained in the following consideration. 
In Gauge theory, the Largangian or field equation is invariant under the gauge transformation : ^{'} = e^{i(at)} , where a is the phase angle associates with the "axis", t the generator in the form of nxn matrix, n the dimension of the Gauge space, the number of phase angles is determined by the formula N_{a} = n^{2}  1 (except for n = 1, N_{a} = 1, see a little bit more in "Unitary Groups"). Figure 14 is an example of simplest Gauge transformation with n = 1. It shows that the SO(2) rotational transformation of 2component field (interpreted as two +/ charge states) is equivalent to a single complex field in U(1)= e^{iI} (I = 1) Gauge group. In general SO(n+1) ~ SU(n), where "S" means that the transformation is "Special" with det(U) = +1, which implies continuous rotations without reflection.  
Figure 14 [view large image] 
This is "Global Gauge Transformation" applicable to all space. It is the spatial dependence "Local Gauge Transformation" that generate the Gauge bosons responsible for interaction of particles. 
when, but in certain circumstance, the Higgs field would develop to a false vacuum state and then decays to the state of true vacuum H (as depicted in Figure 15). Then the particles would interact with the Higgs field to slow down by exchange of energy and appear as acquiring mass.  
Figure 15 Higgs Field 
It is not known whether the other quantum fields are inherent to the initial environment or developed gradually. Regardless of either possibility, Gauge theory assumes that it started with a more encompassed Gauge group namely the SU(5) (also see "Group"). 
about 10^{35} sec after the Big Bang. These additional bosons carry new forces which can transform quarks into leptons and vice versa (hence the proton decay, which failed to be confirmed experimentally leading to the desertion of the theory).  
Figure 16 GUT, SU(5) 
See other Grand Unified Theories. 
 
Figure 17 SSB + ESB 
 
Figure 18 SSB + CSB 

Figure 19 QGP/Hadron Gas Transition _{} 
Starting about 50 years ago, experiments using Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC) have demonstrated the existence of QGP (see the review article "Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks"). All these studies obtain deconfinement through high temperature as shown in Figure 19. 
The main way of processing crude oil is to separate it using fractional distillation. Oil is made up of many different hydrocarbons of different boiling points (Quantum Fields). The first step in distillation is to boil the oil to a very high temperature (Big Bang), usually around 400^{o}C. When the solution boils, it forms vapors entering the fractional distillation column (GUT), which has many trays to collect the liquid (Quantum Fields). As the height in the column increases, the temperature gets cooler, so as the vapors rise, they cool. Since every hydrocarbon chain has a different boiling point, as a chain reaches a height where the temperature is lower than the boiling point, it will cool into a liquid and be collected by a tray (Symmetry Breaking Processes). This method allows for all parts of the oil to be separated and collected so that they can be further processed and refined (Standard Model). A very good animation of the distillation process can be found in Figure 20.  
Figure 20 Q Fields Evolve and Crude Oil Distillation _{} 
According to this scenario, all the quantum fields were unified (mixed together) in the beginning. Each one emerges from the whole and manifests its characteristics only at suitable temperature by the process of Symmetry Breaking. The Higgs field is eternal and ubiquitous (Figure 09). 