Topic Size Mass/Energy First Appearance Force and Phenomena
Observable Universea 1028 cm. 1022 Msun 0 sec. Gravity + Unknown repulsive force; an expanding space in the last 13.7x109 yrs, containing all the mass/energy of this world
Superclustersa 1026 cm. 1016 Msun 11x109 yr. Gravity; largest scale of lumpiness
Clusters of Galaxiesa 1024 cm. 1015 Msun 6x109 yr. Gravity; galaxies in orbit around each other + dark matter
Galaxiesa 1022 cm. 1011 - 1014 Msun 7x108 yr. Gravity; aggregation of stars, gas, dust and dark matter
Star Clustersa 1020 cm. 102 - 106 Msun 5x108 yr. Gravity; group of stars originated in an interstellar cloud
Planetary Systemsa 1016 cm. 0.1-100 Msun 1.8x108 yr. Gravity; system of non-luminous bodies as by-product in stellar formation
Starsa 1011 cm. 0.1-100 Msun 1.8x108 yr. Gravity; contracting lump of gas with luminosity maintained by nuclear burning
Earthg 109 cm. 6x1027 gm. 9.5x109 yr. Gravity; a planet in the habitable zone of the Solar system
Multicellular Organismsb 104 - 10-1 cm. 107 - 10-3 gm. 13.5x109 yr. Residual Electromagnetic force; life composed with multiple cells
Unicellular Organismsb 10-1 - 10-4 cm. 10-3 - 10-12 gm. 10.5x109 yr. Residual Electromagnetic force; one cell living unit
Moleculesc 10-5 - 10-8 cm. 10 - 10-3 ev. 3.8x105 yr. Residual Electromagnetic force; structure formed by combination of atoms
Atomsc 10-8 cm. 10 ev. 3.8x105 yr. Electromagnetic force; system of electrons and nuclei
Nucleip 10-13 cm. 109 ev. 1 sec. Residual weak, strong and electromagnetic forces; system of neutrons and protons
Elementary Particlesp 10-16 cm. > 10-3 - 1012 ev. < 10-32 sec. Weak, strong and electromagnetic forces; basic constituents of matter and force

Table 01-01 The Cosmic Table

Note 1 - Field of Study: a=astronomy, b=biology, c=chemistry, g=geology, p=physics.
Note 2 - The Mass M and Energy E are related by the formula E = mc2.
Note 3 - 1 Msun = 2x1033 gm., 1 ev = 1.77x10-33 gm.
Note 4 - The energy in "Atom" and "Molecule" refers to the binding energy, which holds the system together