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Medical Science


The mouth and its associated teeth is at the entrance of the digestive system, and as such they suffer a lot of abuses. The problem was particularly serve in ancient Egypt with coarse diet (which may have lacked in minerals and vitamins). Evidence of dental work has been found as early as 7000 BC. Figure 11 displays the 2000 BCE dental bridges. Figure 12 shows a modern view of the tooth with a brief definitions of the terms below.
Dentistry History Tooth Anatomy
  • Enamel - Hard calcified tissue covering the crown of tooth.
  • Dentin - Calcified tissue.
  • Pulp - Connective tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves.
  • Gum - Soft tissue that surrounds the necks of teeth.
  • Root Canal: The portion of the pulp cavity inside the root of a tooth in the form of a canal.

Figure 11 Dentistry History
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Figure 12 Anatomy of Tooth
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  • Mandible - The lower jaw bone holding the lower teeth in place.
  • Maxilla - Upper jaw.

  • Table 03 lists some of the diseases affecting dental and oral health.

    Disease Symptom(s) Cause(s) Treatment(s)
    Oral, Maxillofacial Pathology Dental caries (rotten teeth), damage to teeth supporting structures Congenital or acquired via fungus, bacteria, ... Dental restoration, tooth extraction
    ( see link)
    Oral Medicine Pain localized to the region above the neck, as well as pain within the oral cavity Afflicted by many gastrointestinal and cutaneous conditions Surgery ( see link)
    Orthodontics Dental irregularities : crowding, too much space, extra or missing teeth, cleft palate. Inherited, or acquired Correction by orthodontic braces
    ( see link)
    Periodontology Problems with supporting structures (periodontium) : gums, alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament Bacterial plaque in gums and teeth Removal of dental scale, bad fillings, crowns and other unwanted deposits, polishing tooth neck, etc. ( see link)
    Prosthodontics Lost Teeth Dental diseases, tooth developmental defects, genetic defects, trauma. Installing crowns, bridges, full or partial dentures, and dental implants ( see link)
    Root Canal Pain Toothache, sensitivity (to heat or cold), discoloration, swelling gum, pimple on gum Damaged pulp by infection Tooth is thoroughly cleaned then sealed
    ( see link)

    Table 03 Dentistry

    Cosmetic Dentistry There are dental treatments not necessarily concerned with health. These dental works only improve the appearance (though not necessarily the function) of a person's teeth, gums and/or bite. These procedures cost anywhere from hundreds to thousands of dollars (Figure 13). Many dentists refer to themselves as "cosmetic dentists" regardless of their specific education, specialty, training, and experience in this field. This has been considered unethical with a predominant objective of marketing to patients. There are only 2 dental specialties that predominantly focus on dental esthetics/cosmetics. They are: Prosthodontics and Orthodontics and such specialists are called Prosthodontists and Orthodontists respectively.

    Figure 13 Cosmetic Dentistry

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