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Steady Flow

Lift for Aeroplane and Helicopter

High and Low Pressure Cells

Spiral Flow

Hydrostatics

Formation of Spherical Body

where

= viscosity, K

The Navier-Stokes equations are time-dependent and consist of a continuity equation for conservation of mass, three conservation of momentum equations and a conservation of energy equation. There are four independent variables in the equation - the x, y, and z spatial coordinates, and the time t; six dependent variables - the pressure p, density , temperature T, and three components of the velocity vector

- Special Cases:
- Incompressible fluid - In fluid dynamics, an incompressible fluid is a fluid whose density is constant. It is the same throughout space and it does not change through time. According to the continuity equation, it also implies
**u**= 0. It is an idealization used to simplify analysis. In reality, all fluids are compressible to some extent. - Inviscid or Stokes flow - Viscous problems are those in which fluid friction have significant effects on the solution. Problems for which friction can safely be neglected are called inviscid. The Reynolds number (
**R**=(u_{s}L)/, where u_{s}is the mean fluid velocity, and L is the characteristic length, e.g., the cross-section of the pipe) can be used to evaluate whether viscous or inviscid equations are appropriate to the problem. High Reynolds numbers indicate that the inertial forces are more significant than the viscous forces. However, even in high Reynolds number regimes certain problems require that viscosity be included. In particular, problems calculating net forces on bodies (such as the wings on aircraft) should use viscous equations. Stokes flow occurs at very low Reynold's numbers, such that inertial forces can be neglected compared to viscous forces. - Steady flow - Another simplification of the equations is to set all changes of fluid properties with time to zero. This is called steady flow, and is applicable to a large class of problems, such as lift and drag on a wing or flow through a pipe.
- Boussinesq approximation - In fluid dynamics, the Boussinesq approximation is used in the field of buoyancy-driven flow. It states that density differences are sufficiently small to be neglected, except where they appear in terms multiplied by g, the acceleration due to gravity. The essence of the Boussinesq approximation is that the difference in inertia is negligible but gravity is sufficiently strong to make the specific weight appreciably different between the two fluids. Boussinesq flows are common in nature (such as atmospheric fronts, oceanic circulation, downhill winds), industry (dense gas dispersion, fume cupboard ventilation), and the built environment (natural ventilation, central heating). The approximation is extremely accurate for many such flows, and makes the mathematics and physics simpler.
- Laminar vs turbulent flow - Turbulence is flow dominated by recirculation, eddies, and apparent randomness (see Figure 01). Flow in which turbulence is not exhibited is called laminar (see Figure 02). It is believed that turbulent flows obey the Navier-Stokes equations. However, the flow is so complex that it is not possible to solve turbulent problems from first principles with the computational tools available today or likely to be available in the near future. Turbulence is
instead modeled using one of a number of turbulence models and coupled with a flow solver that assumes laminar flow outside a turbulent region. Turbulence usually occurs below a Reynold's numbers of 3000. It causes increased energy loss (as heat), more drag (on the moving body), and generates sound wave (noise). #### Figure 01 Turbulent Flow [view large image]

#### Figure 02 Laminar Flow [view large image]

Modern vehicle and aircraft designs always try to minimize the turbulence by adopting a smooth surface and streamlined contour.

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