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Elementary Particles and the World of Planck Scale

Fundamental Interactions

The 100 years' experimental efforts on understanding the nature of elementary particles are summarized in Table 15-01a below:

Date Detection Discovery Credit Nature
1895 Cathod-ray tube X-ray W. Rontgen High energy photon
1897 Cathod-ray tube Electron J. J. Thomson Electric charge carrier
1898 Photographic plate Radioactive elements P. and M. Curie Unstable nuclei
1911 particle scattering Atomic nucleus E. Rutherford Modern atomic model
1932 Cloud Chamber Neutron J. Chadwick Neutral constituent of nuclei
1932 Bubble Chamber Positron C. Anderson Anti-matter
1956 Anti-neutrino detector Anti-neutrino Cowan and Reines Weak interaction
1964 UA1 detector Quarks CERN Strong interaction
1979 JADE detector Gluons DESY Force carriers for strong interaction
1983 UA1 detector W boson CERN Force carriers for weak interaction
1995 CDF detector Top quark Fermilab Third generation quark
2000 DONUT detector Tau neutrino Fermilab Third generation lepton

Table 15-01a Major Discoveries of Elementary Particles

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